Miskitu History

Miskitu History


More History

The Miskitu are the original people of Northern Nahuatl speaking indigenous people. People of Aztec Mexico who accompanied the Spanish to the Miskitu kingdom referred to the Miskitu as “chontal” or “foreigner”, indicating that the inhabitants of the Miskitu Coast were not the same racially as the Aztecs who lived just north of the Mayans and Miskitu peoples. Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus), himself wrote about his 4th voyage in 1502 to the Americas, where his journals described the Miskitu Coast also being inhabited by “dark-skinned” people who wore golden circular medallions and dwelled by a large river where there was lots of gold in the sands

The Miskitu Nation are the original people on the Moskitia/Mosquito (Miskitu) territory in Central America. Their history dates back to the Mayan civilizations. Oral history says that in 900 AD under the Guidance of Miskitu King Boopam and the other 11 kings, 12 tribes united and became one Miskitu nation. 

These colorful illustrations are by Dr. by Heather Hurst. The illustrations of Dr. Hurst, of the Xultun figures, show that the Miskito/Mosquito dressed in bright colors and wore various scarves and other hats to cover their hair/heads.

 The Miskitu Atlantic Coast is a historically comprised area along the Eastern Coast of present-day Nicaragua and Honduras. It formed part of the Eastern Atlantic Caribbean Zone and was long dominated by British Interests. although The Miskito Kingdom was already an independent state when England officially recognized it in 1689.  


Twenty-one years later, in 1710, London concluded an official treaty of friendship and alliance establishing a protectorate over the kingdom. (Left)The Original flag as a sign of Friendship and mutual respect between England and Miskitu

Map Of Miskit Shore (1700-1713)- provided by Sorson


The inhabitants, consist of  Miskitu, Guarifanos, Pech is (almost extinct), Rama, Tawaska, Prinsus, Sambos, Lakas, Ulwala, Kukras. Rama Kriol, Creole combined cultures are mainly as stewards of the earth who have long been open to invention, in favor of the new and old in moderation and balance.


This diverse group of indigenous people has taken care of Mother Earth for Hundreds of Centuries oral history says: it dates back to the tower of Babel.  All natural resources are being drained due to over-fishing, deforestation and illegal mining. The byproduct of this industrialization has created toxic waste destroying our natural water sources, soil and the balance of our ecosystem. The dignity of life of the Miskitu inhabitants and said territories are under siege.


First Colonos are sent to attack and destroy, burn down, houses and crops, then they chop down fruit and coconut trees, shoot rape and kill at will, then the lumber companies move in and take what they want without compensation or regard. Families return to this- Photo savemnf

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Colonos who surrounded and held at gunpoint, Savemnf ambassadors Ercell and Laura RN during a fact-finding mission. They were told they were journalist and were released.


Deforestation is happening at an alarming rate. When the native people go out to reforest, crop or plant the earth they are shot at by hired guards.


Nicaraguan government forces known as Colonos have been wiping out the original inhabitants of Miskitu territories since the reign of President Daniel Ortega and the UN resolution 650 ( promising protection and autonomy by United Nations to the Miskitu Commanders for disarmament) went into effect March 27, 1990  The systematic attack- part of the, Colonos Sandinista military’s campaign of ethnic cleansing- is carried out daily. Heinous crimes of rape, an ambush of peaceful villages at night with automatic weapons killing men, women, and children. Limiting the access to education, the burning of farmlands and little to no access to health care have ravaged the Miskitu Nation. The Miskitu children are turning to drugs and child prostitution to earn money for their families.

savemnf.orgYour donation can reverse this downward spiral by helping to restore affected lands, provide legal and media attention to the plight, and provide humanitarian and medical needs to those urgently affected.

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This once sovereign nation is at risk of extinction along with the devastation of its once pristine ecosystem.


People immigrate to live better! Don’t blame the immigrant enforce human rights and the complete annihilation of tyranny and oppression. Third and fourth world exist only in theory. We are ONE PLANET! One Human Race! 
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Fourth World Journal Articles (FWJV15N)

The administrative institutions established by the Nicaraguan government after 1894 were held by Mestizos from the Pacific areas of the country Creole culture and the English language also came under attack from the Nicaraguan government, which tried to generalize the Spanish language and Hispanic culture among the inhabitants of the Mosquitia. In Bluefields, for example, special policemen were sent to scout for school children to put into Spanish public schools.

*Since the 1940s, over 100,000 Nicaraguan Mestizos have moved onto Miskito land. Originally, a spontaneous movement, this colonization was soon promoted by Managua. For the ancestral lands of the indigenous peoples harbor some 80% of Nicaragua’s overall wealth of natural resources.

*Over the past century, the central government, primarily through its agrarian institutions, gave out thousands of hectares of lands in the Caribbean region to colonists.  The result was major environmental damage and indigenous deaths as land were cleared without regard to its long-term potential and Indians [were] killed by Spanish-speaking migrants…

*When the Sandinistas first seized power (1979-1989), they passed Autonomy Law 28 for the indigenous peoples of the former Miskito Kingdom; however, it granted little meaningful powers or protections to the Miskito, Mayangna, Rama, Garifuna, and Creole. Instead, it partitioned their land into two autonomous regions and continued the colonization and exploitation of their land. This policy was continued by successive regimes and the returning Sandinistas.

*In 2008, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights noted the existence of racial prejudice against indigenous and Afro-descendant women in the Autonomous Regions; as well as serious shortcomings in the health and education services and the absence of a consultation process to seek communities free, prior and informed consent to the exploitation of natural resources in their territories.

*Nicaraguan colonists came from all areas of the national territory, invading ancestral lands, pillaging community property, and preying on the habitats of indigenous peoples

–  Author Joseph E. Fallon is a subject matter expert on the Middle East and Central Asia. He has taught at the U.S. Army War College, U.S. Army Intelligence Center: